Monday, September 30, 2013

ARTICLE * 2 *: Egyptian Years & Days - Mystery of the various Egyptian Calendars

“The Egyptian calendar is certainly the only rational calendar that has ever been devised,” wrote the ancient Greek historian Herodotus after his visit to Egypt in the fifth century BCE.

The ancient Egyptians were one of the first nations to use a solar calendar, in around 3,000 BCE, and this shows their great regard for science and the high level of scientific knowledge they had attained. Their calendar was based on the phases of the River Nile and the associated activities in the fields of flooding, seedtime and harvesting, these making up three distinct seasons of four months each. 

These seasons shaped the lives and character of the Egyptian fellaheen (peasants) who were so engrossed in agriculture and the land that they left all other matters — social, political and economic — to outsiders. It was this that facilitated the foreign control of the country and that led to the peasants’ eventual oppression.

Egyptians today use three calendars, the Islamic, Coptic and Western calendar, the last being used by people of both faiths for most secular or official purposes. The Islamic calendar is used only for religious purposes, while the Coptic calendar is used to mark the events of the Christian year and the agricultural almanac by farmers of both faiths.
Continue reading full article ..... CLICK HERE
SOURCE Ahram Weekly by Samia Abdennour
More reading about Astronomy at Dendera Temple & the Zodiac ... CLICK HERE

Sunday, September 29, 2013

NEWS: Egypt asks for return of artefacts listed on eBay London

For the second time this week, Egypt calls on Britain to halt auction of ancient Egyptian and Islamic artifacts
MSA minister Mohamed Ibrahim said that the inspection would assess the objects' authenticity as well as their accompanying documents in order to ascertain how they were taken out of Egypt.
Authentic objects that have been illegally smuggled from the country must return to Egypt as they represent Egypt's heritage
Head of the MSA's repatriation department Ahmed Ali told Ahram Online that the listed objects on eBay were found by chance, as the MSA inspects worldwide auction hall websites to determine if Egyptian artifacts have been illegally smuggled and to demand their restitution.
Ali noted that eBay lists over 800 ancient Egyptian and Islamic objects for auction, including scarabs, lanterns, amulets and ushabti figurines.
Early this week, Egypt succeeded in halting the sale of a collection of Egyptian artifacts in two Jerusalem auction halls.
Source: Ahram Online By Nevien El Aref 

Our Treasure Abroad: Sale of ancient Egyptian artefacts halted in Jerusalem

Egyptian antiquities ministry asks Israeli authorities to prevent sale of ancient artefacts on display at auction halls in Jerusalem.

According to a press release by the Egyptian Ministry of State of Antiquities (MSA), the Israeli Antiquities Authority has taken all required procedures to stop the sale of a collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts in two auction halls in Jerusalem.  This news was sent to MSA minister Mohamed Ibrahim in an official letter from Egypt’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs today.

The letter confirms that Israel's Foreign Ministry reportedly ordered the antiques authority to stop the sale of priceless items at Eweda auction hall.

On Monday, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs upon the request of the MSA, asked the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs to take all required procedures in collaboration with the Egyptian embassy in Jerusalem to stop the sale of 126 ancient Egyptian artefacts. These objects were put on sale in two auction halls, Eweda and Bidoon, in Jerusalem.

Ali Ahmed, director-general of the Repatriation of Antiquities Department in the MSA, explains that the objects in question were traced through a routine web review of all international auction halls carried out by the department periodically. 

Eweda is currently exhibiting 110 artefacts while Bidoon is displaying 16 others. The stolen objects include a collection of ancient Egyptian clay vessels, vases, ushabti figurines and stelae.
Source: Ahram Online By Nevien El Aref 

Tuesday, September 24, 2013

NEW DISCOVERY: archaeological discovery found in Alexandria

Alexandria's antiquities department has discovered a new archaeological monument in the eastern area of the city.

Archaeologists revealed several items, including cisterns, pottery remains, and a headstone. The items were transferred to Alexandria National Museum. All items belong to the Roman era. Mostafa Rushdy, head of Alexandria and Beheira antiquities department, said the discovery was found during an archaeological field survey to get permission for building there.
Rushy added that the discovery reflects the greatness of Alexandria, which was the second biggest city after Rome during the Roman Empire.

 Ancient pottery dating back to the Roman era  has been discovered in western Alexandria.
 Alexandria and Beheira Antiquities Director  Mostafa Rushdie told state-owned news  agency MENA that the jars were found during  an archaeological excavation survey normally  conducted before constructing new buildings.

 “The discovery confirms the greatness of the  city of Alexandria, the largest in the era of the  Roman Empire after Rome,” he said.

 Source: Egypt Independent 1 - 2  

NEWS:545 artifacts looted from Mallawi Museum recovered

A total 545 pieces of artifacts stolen from the Mallawi Museum in Minya have been recovered by Egypt's Tourism and Antiquities Police, a security source said.
The Interior Ministry has been campaigning to retrieve hundreds of pieces looted from the museum last month following the dispersal of two major sit-ins staged by supporters of deposed President Mohamed Morsy in Rabaa al-Adaweya and Giza's al-Nahda Square.
Minister of Antiquities Mohamed Ibrahim called on Minya residents to return the stolen artifacts, assuring them that they would not be prosecuted whilst also stressing their importance as national treasures.
In August, a group of extremists vandalized the Mallawi Museum and looted many of its contents. A list of the stolen artifacts was reported to all ports and to Interpol and was also posted on the website of the International Council of Museums (ICOM).
The source added that the last pieces have been retrieved after someone reported finding 12 artifact of those in the last of looted pieces. The artifacts found were examined by a committee of experts to make sure they belong to the museum's collection.

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Monday, September 23, 2013

Our Treasures Abroad: Egypt demands the return of ancient artefacts being auctioned in Jerusalem

The Egyptian Ministry of Antiquity has asked for the 126 ancient Egyptian artefacts discovered at two auction halls in Jerusalem to be returned to Egypt immediately. 

Egyptian Minister of Antiquities Mohamed Ibrahim sent an urgent letter today to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to take all required procedures in collaboration with the Egyptian embassy in Jerusalem to stop the sale of 126 ancient Egyptian artefacts. These objects have been put on sale in two auction halls, Ewedaand Bidoon, in Jerusalem.

Ibrahim told Ahram Online that the ministry also contacted the Interpol and the Egyptian Tourism and Antiquities Police as well as concerned authorities to carry out all investigations required. The ministry has also called on the Israeli authorities to conduct independent investigations as to whether the two auction halls own these artefacts or they have been stolen and illegally smuggled out of Egypt. Ibrahim has requested the immediate return of these ancient Egyptian objects.

Ali Ahmed, director-general of the Repatriation of Antiquities Department in the Ministry of Antiquities, explains that the objects in question were traced through a routine web review of all international auction halls carried out by the department periodically. Eweda is currently exhibiting 110 artefacts whileBidoon is displaying 16 others. The stolen objects include a collection of ancient Egyptian clay vessels, vases, ushabti figurines and stelae.
Source: Ahram online by Nevien El Aref 

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Egyptography Collection Vol. 03 - Alexandria

Following our Egyptography collection about the beauty of Egypt, we hope you enjoyed Volume 01 for Abu Simbel Temples  & Volume 2 for Abydos Temples and we continue with Volume 03 for the city of Alexandria, the Pearl of the Mediterranean in North Egypt.

View Egyptography Collection Vol. 03 - Alexandria

Download iCruise Egypt magazine


Monday, September 16, 2013

NEWS: Five more artefacts looted from Malawi National Museum retrieved

On Saturday, the Ministry of State of Antiquities (MSA) recovered five more artefacts that had been reported missing from the looted Malawi National Museum (MNM) on 14th August. The museum was looted amidst violence that occurred after the dispersal of two pro-Morsi sit-ins at Rabaa street in Nasr City and Al-Nahda square in Giza.Ahmad Sharaf, head of the Museums section at the MSA, said that the objects included a bronze statue of Ibis, bird god of wisdom and knowledge sitting before a priest, as well as two rounded clay pots, a bronze statue of goddess Isis and a papyrus manuscript bearing eight lines of demotic text written in black.These objects were handed over to the MSA by an Al-Menya inhabitant.

MSA Minister Mohamed Ibrahim told Ahram Online that until now the ministry has succeeded in recovering 216 of the 1049 artefacts reported missing.

"I am very confident that the Al-Menya inhabitants will hand over all the MNM objects they find in their possession, due to an obligation to preserve and protect their nation's heritage," Ibrahim asserted.
Source: Ahram Online by Nevien el Aref 

NEWS: Egypt Antiquities ministry says NO Islamic artefacts are missing

Antiquities Minister Mohamed Ibrahim says artefacts on display in Doha are not from Cairo Museum of Islamic Arts as has been claimed A number of artefacts exhibited at Doha's Museum of Islamic Arts (MIA) are not from Cairo's Museum of Islamic Arts (MIA), Egyptian Antiquities Minister Mohamed Ibrahim said at a press conference on Monday.
Such a rumour became widespread among the archaeological community and the media. In response the Ministry of State for Antiquities (MSA) organised a press conference on Monday afternoon to put forward its version of events.
Ibrahim pointed out that according to UNESCO's 1972 convention on Cultural Property Ownership, which Egypt signed in 1973, a country is able to recover its objects if displayed in any museum around the world as long as it has the relevant possession documents. He said that during the Islamic era decorative items or elements used by Egyptian artisans or created in Egypt were spread all over the Islamic empire.
The iron war helmet on display at the Doha MIA cannot be an Egyptian artefact due to its production and style, Ibrahim asserted. Such a helmet, he continued, was well known in Turkey. The ones produced in Egypt had a different style and shape. In addition, he said, the helmet that belongs to the MIA is on display in its exhibition hall.He also called on social media users to be sure of their facts before publishing. "I also call Egyptians to report to the ministry and me personally any theft attempt, on condition that he or she has proof."
Doha's MIA has also denied artefacts from Cairo's MIA are on display in Qatar.
Source: Ahram Online By Nevien El Aref 

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

SEE EGYPT (4): Best HD video about Egypt

Best HD video about Egypt 
by Qube Production & Koree Films

NEWS: Ancient Egyptian objects recovered in Mit-Rahina

Related Post 
While on routine inspection at Mit-Rahina, the Tourism and Antiquities Police uncovered on Tuesday a plastic bag concealing Ancient Egyptian artefacts. The bag was found half-buried in the botanical area behind the Hathor Temple archaeological site, located 24 km south of Cairo.
Adel Hussein, head of the MSA's Ancient Egyptian Archaeological Section, explains that the three previously missing objects include a partly-damaged clay plate, a red clay pot and an alabaster cylindrical pot with a round base.Minister of State for Antiquities (MSA) Mohamed Ibrahim told Ahram Online that the bag contains seven objects, three of which were reported missing from the Mit-Rahina gallery during the violence that erupted in the aftermath of the January 2011 Revolution. The other four items, he said, resulted from illegal excavation in the site.
The other four objects are also clay pots of different shapes, colours and sizes.
The seven uncovered objects, now in custody, will be transferred to the Mit-Rahina gallery for restoration once investigations are concluded.
Mit-Rahina, historically known as Memphis, was the capital of Ancient Egypt for over eight consecutive dynasties in the Old Kingdom.
The city reached its peak during the 6th Dynasty, becoming the epicentre of god Ptah's worship, the Egyptian god of creation and artworks.

With the rise of Thebes and the New Kingdom, Memphis briefly declined after the 18th Dynasty, becoming the second largest Egyptian city until 641 CE, before it was eventually abandoned, turning into a stone quarry for the surrounding settlements.
Memphis now houses the ruins of Ancient Egyptian, Ptolemaic as well as Graeco-Roman temples and chapels.

Source : Ahram online  by Nevien El Aref 

* For more pictures about Memphis (Mit-Rahina) CLICK HERE

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Monday, September 9, 2013

NEWS: Reports of missing objects from Cairo's Museum of Islamic Art

Within Egypt’s archaeological community, reports are circulating about objects missing from the collections of the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo.

Some reports suggest that during an inventory at the museum, curators found that seven bronze artefacts were missing. The missing objects are said to be two statues, an incense burner, a key inlaid with silver decoration, a pot, a jewellery box and an astrolabe.
A curator who asked to be anonymous said that the objects may have gone missing during the museum renovation four years ago and may be hidden in storage.
On the other hand a website called “Egypt’s Heritage Task Force” published on its timeline a piece of news saying that approximately 35 objects that were previously in the museum have suddenly appeared in the Museum of Islamic Art in Doha, Qatar.

One Facebook user, Hani El-Masri, wrote on his Facebook page that when he was a student at the faculty of fine arts he used to go to the Cairo museum to draw some of its objects as he was fond of the Islamic arts. When he visited the museum after its renovation he found that only one third of the museum’s original collection was on display while the rest were in storage, the museum’s curator told him.
El-Masri wrote that a month ago when a friend went to Doha he asked her to take pictures from the Museum of Islamic Art to see the collection on display. Upon looking at the photos, El-Masri realized that 35 objects that he used to draw at the Cairo museum when he was in college are on show in Doha.  
Ahram Online spoke with the Minister of State of Antiquities, Mohamed Ibrahim, who asserted that all “these rumours are unfounded.”
The seven objects in question, he said, were reported missing four years ago before he came to office, during an inventory made in 2010 before the official re-opening of the museum after its restoration. Ibrahim said that there is an ongoing legal investigation into the issue. He also added that, the Ministry of State of Antiquities (MSA) has assigned an archaeological committee to carry out a comprehensive inventory of the museum’s galleries to search for these objects and confirm if they are missing.
As for the 35 artefacts that the Egypt’s Task Force and El-Masri mentioned, Ibrahim told Ahram Online that he does not know anything about the objects, and he will look into the matter and publish an official press statement. But he asserted to Ahram Online that “nothing is missing from the Museum of Islamic Art collection except those seven objects, which could be hidden in storehouses.”
Source: Ahram online by Nevien el Aref

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Reference (1) for Blog (From December 2012 - September 2013) 
* Volume 1 - Abu Simbel Temples 
* Volume 2 - Abydos Temples

* Queen Hatshepsut : She was a Pharaoh 
* King Ramsess II : The Great Pharaoh 
* King Seti I : Father & Son of Ramsess 

* Volume 1 - Abu simbel Temples
* King Ramsess II : the great Pharaoh 

* Volume 2 - Abydos temples
* King Seti I : Father & son of Ramsess




Monday, September 2, 2013

ARTICLE: The Revolt History in Egypt

Papyrus with literary texts on recto and verso: the Tale of the Eloquent Peasant, and the Discourse of the Fowler, © The Trustees of the British Museum

January 2011 was not the first revolution in Egypt in the last 100 years. Unlike the July 1952 Revolution and the regime to which it gave birth, the January Revolution was not military. It was a civil revolution calling for civil rights and civil government. But nor was the July Revolution in any way unprecedented. As the Egyptologist, tour guide and writer who launched the 2005 Save the Sphinx campaign Bassam Al-Shamaa explains, there was a precedent for the January Revolution in the workers’ strike of 1155 BC.

Al-Shamaa traces the Egyptians’ revolutionary character and how it has changed over an incredibly long period of time, indicating that at least some native traits have endured. Of course he is aware of the fact that revolution goes by many names, including “coup d’etat” when it involves military intervention. In ancient Egypt it was called sbi, he explains, meaning roughly rebellion; but by the time the army officer Ahmed Orabi led major protests in 18th century Egypt, it was known by the Arabic word hoga, literally meaning “frenzy” but perhaps more accurately translated as uprising, for which the accepted English term for the Arab world — following Palestinians protests — is “intifada”.
Who is Bassam el-Shammaa

Revolutions were frequent before the unification of upper and lower Egypt, Al-Shamaa says, in the time of what he calls “the very ancient Egyptians”. There were two places in Upper Egypt — the southern half of the country — particularly known for protests: a city whose location is in the present-day town of Ballas, and Naqqada, 27 kilometres north of Luxor. “History works in steps, in my opinion,” Al-Shamaa says. “There is no such thing as an invention, only progress.” King Menes is credited with unifying the country but in fact there were several figures associated with this achievement when “the Lord of the Land(s)” became “the Lord of the Two Lands” and the double crown emerged. This period was in fact very similar to the situation we currently have with the breakdown in security and sharp polarisation between supporters and opponents of General Abdel-Fattah Al-Sisi. At the time, Al-Shamaa says, governors and district heads seceded from the central government, which almost happened twice in the last year, in the cities of Al-Mahalla and Port Said.

A revolution took place after the death of King Pepi II, who was six-years-old when he was enthroned. He died 100-years-old, ruling for 94 years during which corruption grew. But it is Governor Rach-Ni-Ra, whose tomb lies on the west bank of Luxor, who strikes a chord with contemporary Egypt. He was given a letter of appointment in which he was advised by King Tuthmosis III to treat those who are far as he would those who are near and in turn he stated that he would not take bribes — the ancient Egyptian word was nkt, meaning “something” — which is a concept that lives with us today, the common phrase for bribing being “giving something”. Revolution broke out when Pepi II died in 2100 BC, followed by “an intermediary” period of 120 years during which there were constant security problems. “Four men go out and three return; the peasant goes to the field with a shield. Those who didn’t have anything, have everything.” Thus the inscriptions from that time, according to Al-Shamaa, echoing the conditions of the last two-and-a-half years in Egyptian history.

It was also this period that made it possible for the peasant to address the government in the famous Eloquent Peasant letters of Khu-N-Nbu, talking about the servant of the head of the ushers Geotinacht. Khu-N-Nbu may be considered the first rebel in history. After being bullied by Geotinacht, he wrote nine letters of complaint to the king and managed to retrieve the produce of which Geotinacht had robbed him, eventually switching places with that official. It is not possible to generalise in history, Al-Shamaa says, but we can trace certain bloodlines in the Egyptian character: “We have become a very tense nation, all sectors of society are tense. And we might have blamed that on the randomness of our modernity if we had not had Khu-N-Nbu, Geotinacht and the king who willingly compensates the weak. Just as Khu-N-Nbu was compensated, he might have been condemned to punishment for having demanded his rights. It is possible to say that this does not happen now in the current situation, with safety guaranteed  those who are calling for their rights.