Showing posts with label Bent Pyramid. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bent Pyramid. Show all posts

Tuesday, September 22, 2020

Egypt News "2" : Egypt cuts highways across pyramids plateau, alarming conservationists.

"The roads are very, very important for development, for Egyptians, for inside Egypt," says head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities. "Know that we take good care of our antiquities sites everywhere in Egypt."
Egypt is building two highways across the pyramids plateau outside Cairo, reviving and expanding a project that was suspended in the 1990s after an international outcry.
The Great Pyramids, Egypt's top tourist destination, are the sole survivor of the seven wonders of the ancient world and the plateau is a UNESCO world heritage site.
The highways are part of an infrastructure push spearheaded by Egypt's powerful military and championed by President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, who is building a new capital city to ease the population pressure on Cairo, home to 20 million people.
The northern highway will cross the desert 2.5 km (1.6 miles) south of the Great Pyramids. The southern one will pass between the Step Pyramid of Saqqara - the oldest one - and the Dahshur area, home to the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid.
Each highway appears to be about eight lanes wide.
Critics say they could cause irrevocable damage to one of the world's most important heritage sites. Authorities say they will be built with care and improve transport links, connecting new urban developments and bypassing central Cairo's congestion.
"The roads are very, very important for development, for Egyptians, for inside Egypt," said Mostafa al-Waziri, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities. "Know that we take good care of our antiquities sites everywhere in Egypt."
Some Egyptologists and conservationists say the highways will disrupt the integrity of the pyramids plateau, pave over unexplored archaeological sites, generate pollution that could corrode monuments, produce litter and expose closed areas packed with hidden archaeological treasures to looting.
Al-Waziri said existing roads were much closer to the pyramids and carried a lot of tourist buses. "That is why we are doing a lot of development," he said, noting plans to use electric tourist buses within the plateau to avoid pollution.

The highways, which will dissect the plateau into three, will cross a section of ancient Memphis, one of the world's biggest and most influential cities for almost 3,000 years.
"I was flabbergasted by what I saw," said former senior UNESCO official Said Zulficar, who visited a portion of the southern highway two months ago. "All the work that I had done nearly 25 years ago is now being put into question.
"Zulficar led a successful campaign in the mid-1990s to suspend construction of the northern highway, a branch of Cairo's first ringroad. UNESCO said it had requested detailed information on the new plan several times and asked to send a monitoring mission.
The state press center referred a Reuters request for further comment on the plans to a communications advisor of the tourism and antiquities ministry, who could not be reached.
Construction began well over a year ago in desert areas largely out of public sight and became more visible around March, Egyptologists and Google Earth images indicate.
On a recent visit, Reuters journalists saw heavy machinery clearing fields and building bridges and junctions along both highways. Hundreds of uprooted date palms lay in piles.
The southern highway is a part of Cairo's second ringroad that will connect the western satellite city of Sixth of October to the new capital city east of Cairo via 16 kilometers (nine miles) of desert on the pyramids plateau, farmland and a corner of Memphis.
In 2014, the World Bank estimated congestion in the greater Cairo area cut about 3.6 percentage points off Egypt's output.
"The road cuts through archeologically unexplored cemeteries of the little-known 13th Dynasty, in walking distance of the pyramids of Pepi II and Khendjer and the Mastabat el-Fara'un", said an Egyptologist who knows the area.
The person was among six Egyptologists Reuters spoke to. Most of them declined to be named for fear of losing clearance to handle antiquities.
One said caches of statues and blocks with hieroglyphs had been unearthed since highway construction began; the antiquities authority said on its Facebook page these had been discovered on nearby private property.
Memphis, said to have been founded in about 3,000 B.C. when Egypt was united into a single country, was eclipsed but not abandoned when Alexander the Great moved the capital to Alexandria in 331 B.C.
It extended more than 6 square kilometres, the Nile valley's largest ancient settlement site.
The new road comes close to the ancient city's commercial districts, its harbour walls and the former site of an ancient Nilometer, used to measure the height of the annual flood, said David Jeffreys, a British Egyptologist who has been working on Memphis for the Egypt Exploration Society since 1981.
It also endangers a Roman wall that once bordered the Nile that Jeffreys said few people were aware of.
"Memphis has long been neglected, even by Egyptologists, as it is a complicated site to excavate," another Egyptologist said. "But it is enormously rich, bursting with temples, archives, administrative buildings and industrial areas."


Sunday, October 16, 2016

News, Giza: Scan Pyramids Project Requests Year Extension

The Scan Pyramids project is using new technology to explore the internal architecture of Egypt's pyramids. Written By/ Nevine El-Aref.
The archaeological committee formed by Egypt's antiquities minister to follow up on the work of the Scan Pyramids project met on Thursday to hear a report on the results of the project's work over the past year inside the Great Pyramid of Khufu and the Dahshur Bent Pyramid and to request an extension.

The Scan Pyramids project started last year; it uses new technologies in an attempt to explore the internal architecture of Egypt's pyramids.

The committee following up on the project is led by former minister of antiquities Zahi Hawass and includes Mark Lehner, the director of Ancient Egypt Research Associates; Merslav Barta, director of the Czech archaeological mission in Saqqara; and Riner Schtudlmen, former director of the German archaeological institute.

At the meeting Hani Helal, the Scan Pyramids coordinator, said that more research is required for the Bent Pyramid but inside the Great Pyramid the mission located two anomalies: one at the upper part of the entrance gate and the second at its north-eastern side. Helal said that during the coming period more research and studies are to be carried out in order to identify the nature and size of these anomalies.

Hawass said that the members of the committee approved in principal the results of the research carried out by the project. He said that the committee is to prepare a detailed final scientific and archaeological report on the project's progress from its inception to the current time.

The report will be sent to Antiquities Minister Khaled El-Enany for discussion. Hawass also said that members of the committee approved in principal Scan Pyramids' request to extend the project for another year, on condition that it is approved by the ministry's permanent committee and follows all legal procedures.

Sunday, December 20, 2015

News, Giza: Second Phase of #ScanPyramid Project Begins

Muons Emusion plate setup in Bent Pyramid Lower Chamber
Scanners are being used to search for possible hidden chambers within Egyptian pyramids without compromising their infrastructure. Written By/ Nevine El-Aref.

Muon radiography survey begins on King Snefru’s Bent Pyramid at Dahshour necropolis. A team of experts is beginning a scanning survey of the Bent Pyramid of ancient Egyptian King Snefru in Giza using scanning technology which uses non-invasive Muon particles. The scanners are being used to search for possible hidden chambers within the pyramid without compromising its infrastructure.

Following test sessions in November that allowed the #ScanPyramids team to calibrate the sensitivity of Muon emulsion films to the local environment (temperature and humidity) inside King Snefru’s Bent Pyramid, Kunihiro Morishima and his team from Nagoya University have just completed the installation of the Muon detector plates in the pyramid’s lower chamber.

Eldamaty and the ScanPyramids Team
Morishima explains that the films are composed of 40 “regular” plates representing a surface of 3m2 containing two emulsion films that are sensitive to Muons. 

These emulsion films will allow the detection of various types of Muons naturally penetrating the pyramid.

Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh Eldamaty told Ahram Online that the #ScanPyramids team has also installed a “regular” plate sample in the Queen Chamber of Khufu’s Pyramid in order to find out the best chemical formula of the emulsion films suitable for the local environment inside the Pyramid, as has been done inside the Bent Pyramid.

“The complete installation of the Muon detector films inside Khufu Pyramid is expected to be done at a later stage in 2016,” he pointed out.

Muon Emulsion Test in Khufu's Pyramid Queen Chamber
The analysis of the Bent Pyramid Muon emulsion films will be taking place in Cairo and in Japan during the first weeks of 2016. 

Muon radiography is non-invasive as Muon particles come naturally from the upper layers of Earth’s atmosphere, and are created from collisions of cosmic rays with the nuclei of atoms in the atmosphere.

Morishima said that the particles fall to the ground at nearly the speed of light with a constant rate of about 10,000 per m2 per minute. 

As with x-rays used to visualise human skeletons, these elementary particles, like heavy electrons, can very easily pass through any structure, even large, thick rocks and mountains. 

Muons Sensitivty Calibration in Khufus
Pyramid Queen Chamber
Detectors placed at appropriate places (e.g. inside the pyramid, under a possibly undetected chamber) allow with the accumulation of Muons over time to discern the void areas from denser areas as some of the particles are absorbed or deflected.

Muon radiography is now frequently used for the observation of volcanoes, which also involves research teams from the University of Nagoya. 

More recently, KEK, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, developed a detection approach based on electronic scintillators which are resistant to nuclear radiation, unlike chemical emulsions, in order to scan inside the Fukushima nuclear plant reactors.

The #ScanPyramids project was launched on October under the authority of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, and the Heritage, Innovation and Preservation Institute (HIP).

The project aims to scan over a one year period some of the Egyptian Pyramids, including the Great Pyramid of Khufu and the Khafre Pyramid at the Giza Plateau, as well as King Snefru’s Bent and Red Pyramids at Dahshur necropolis. 

The Bent Pyramid
The #ScanPyramids combines several non-invasive and non-destructive scanning techniques in order to try to detect the presence of any unknown internal structures and cavities in ancient monuments, which may lead to a better understanding of their structure and their construction processes and techniques.

The used technologies are a mix of infrared thermography, Muon radiography and 3D reconstruction. 

It worth mentioning that the first phase of a project using a short infrared thermography survey has been completed, while its results and technical analysis of its findings will be announced in January 2016.
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Tuesday, November 10, 2015

News, Giza: Thermal Scans of Egypt's Great Pyramid Reveal Anomalies

The scans revealed anomalies including empty areas in the pyramids, which could be internal air currents or different building materials. Written By/ Nevine El-Aref.
Eldamaty During the Press Conference Before the Pyramid
After two weeks of infrared thermal scanning, Egyptian and foreign scientific teams have identified major anomalies at the eastern side of King Khufu’s Great Pyramid in Giza.

The thermal scanning was made at sunrise as the sun heats the structures from the outside, and then at sunset when the pyramids are cooling down. The speed of the heating and cooling phases was used to uncover "anomalies" such as empty areas in the pyramids, which could be internal air currents or different building materials.

The thermal scanning was carried out in collaboration with the Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University, the French Heritage Innovation and Preservation (HIP) Institute, the Université Laval in Quebec and the Nagoya University in Japan.

Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh Eldamaty told reporters at a press conference, which was held Monday night at the step of the Great Pyramid plateau, that the result of the infrared thermography scan on the first row of the pyramid’s limestone blocks shows that all the blocks have the same temperature, with the exception of three which are hotter.

Eldamaty said that these three blocks were “different in formation,” and that a similar situation was also noted in the middle of the eastern side of the pyramid. He also said that while inspecting the ground in front the eastern side of the pyramid, scientists found "that there is something like a small passage leading up to the pyramid ground, reaching an area with a different temperature.

Thermal Detection Showing Red Spots which are the Anomalies at the First Raw
of The pyramid
“What could it be behind it?" Eldamaty wondered, calling on fellow Egyptologists, especially those interested in ancient Egyptian architecture, to brainstorm and join in the research to help in explaining the phenomenon. “I don’t know yet what could lay behind such blocks or what these anomalies could be, but it will surely lead to major discoveries,” Eldamaty told Ahram Online.

“I have several hypotheses in mind, though I cannot reveal them before conducting further research and study,” he said, adding that Muon detection will soon be used on the Khufu Pyramid in order to determine what these blocks conceal and the nature of the anomalies.“It could be void spaces, fissures or passages. So far, I do not know,” he said, adding that more should be revealed after two weeks.

An Egyptian Egyptologist, who spoke to Ahram Online on condition of anonymity, said that nothing would be found behind the blocks except for fractures, as this is the “mother rock” of the plateau.He said that when the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, they inserted the blocks and the casing of the two first rows of the pyramids on the area's mother rock.
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